Livestock Operations JHA

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Click "Next Page" to review and complete the following:
  • Livestock Operations JHA
In addition, all participants on pack-supported projects need to complete their standard project paperwork:
  • If you haven't already completed this paperwork, CLICK HERE for scouting trips or CLICK HERE for trail maintenance trips.
Please contact us at or (916) 285-1838 with any questions.

Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

References-FSH 6709.11 and -12

Livestock Operations
2. LOCATION: Pacific Crest NST and side trails
3. UNIT: Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail
4. NAME OF ANALYST: Michael Morse (R5 Pack Stock Center of Excellence), Beth Boyst (PCT Program Manager), R5 Packers, BCHC, PCTA
6. DATE PREPARED: July 31, 2018

Injury to stock and personnel
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Agency supervisors, crew leaders, and the lead designated packer shall ensure that personnel assigned to pack and ride stock are competent in these tasks. Personnel hauling stock in trucks and/or trailer shall have the proper license endorsements. A detailed plan of operation may be used additionally to clarify roles and responsibilities for project implementation. Only employees and volunteers authorized under a signed Volunteer Agreement by the District Ranger/Forest Supervisor may ride and/or pack stock.

HAZARDS: Devices
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Utilize cellular phones, satellite phones and/or InReach devices. Be aware that cell phones do not work along many sections of the PCT. Know the location of the nearest working landline and, if possible, the nearest location for cell phone service.

ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Have agency compatable radios on crew. Ensure radios have properly programmed frequencies, are in working order, and have an extra set of batteries before leaving on the trip. Know local repeaters and best locations to use radios during emergency. Know who is available to hear you call on the radio, as agency staffing may be few or none after regular work hours and on weekends.

ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Check-in before project and check-out after project with designated tracker, which may be PCTA Regional Representative or federal agency staff.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Emergency Response
HAZARDS: Trailhead Communication Plan (TCP), Emergency Action Plan (EAP)
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Ensure plans are in place prior to beginning of project. Share TCP with PCTA Regional Rep, agency staff, and tracker. If EAP is activated due to incident, contact PCTA and agency staff immediately.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Transporting Stock
HAZARDS: Vehicular accidents, Personal injury, Injury to stock
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: All trailers shall be equipped with a non-slip surface and inspected annually for protruding nails and/or rotten boards. Aluminum floored trailers will be inspected for floor warpage between frames and floor corrosion leading to holes. Conduct a pre-trip inspection of truck and trailer. Check spare tire condition if driving on extended dirt or bad roads an additional spare tire should be considered. Check for proper wrenches to remove tires. Secure safety chains, break-away system and plug in and check electrical system. Avoid quick stops and starts.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Loading and Unloading Stock in Trailer
HAZARDS: Injuries to feet, head, back and getting crushed in trailer, Injuries to stock
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Load/unload in a flat open area. Do not exceed the load carrying capacity of the vehicle. Do not carry loose gear, personnel and animals together. Do not lead an animal in a two horse trailer by being in the same stall. Do not wrap lead rope around hand or body.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Securing Stock in Trailer
HAZARDS: Injury to stock, Injury to personnel
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Halter stock and fasten the animal's head securely. Use a rolling slipknot or hitching rack-tie to secure stock to trailer or tie with panic snaps. Secure excess rope away from stock so that it doesn't drag floor of trailer. When hauling one animal in a two-stall trailer load to the left stall. Secure hook divider chains. Close tailgate immediately. If loading only a few animals in a large trailer secure animals so that the center of gravity of the load is just ahead of the axles. 

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Basic Riding Practices
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Always speak to an animal when approaching. Check and clean all animals shoes/hooves pre and post riding. Inspect all tack for good condition. Bridle stock prior to mounting. Lead an animal around after being saddled and before mounting or being packed. Be alert for insects or animals that may spook stock. Do not wrap reins or packstock's lead rope around the saddle horn or your hand. Keep excessive slack out of lead rope. Do not rick stock in lightening storms. Watch out for low hanging branches. Do not run animals. Always carry a cutting tools on your person for emergencies. Exterior tools should be secured and protected in a covered sheath. Riding with a backpack (>10 lbs.) is not allowed. 

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Riding Livestock
HAZARDS: Injuries to personnel and stock
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: The designated and lead packer or person in charge of the stock shall carry a first aid kit and assure that all personnel have personal protective equipment. This includes long pants, riding boots or work shoes that will not hang up in the stirups, and hat. Protective headgear is recommended for inexperienced riders. Riding bareback is not permitted. Before riding, hold a tailgate briefing to instruct all members of the work party that livestock can be dangerous specifically addressing stock safety, individual stock habits, characteristics, local hazards and environmental concerns.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Securing Livestock
HAZARDS: Injuries to personnel and stock
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: When tying livestock, clear away debris and tie the lead rope at least 5' above the ground to prevent entanglement. Tie up using a rolling slipknot. If possible tie to an object that the animal cannot walk around. Do not cross under the lead rope of a tied animal. Do not tie to a wire fence. Use a halter under the riding stock's bridle-do not tie up with reins. Do not tie animals to movable objects. Use sound sturdy rope at least 1/2 inch diameter in securing stock. When near the rear of stock, stay close, maintain contact and talk to the animal.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Packing and Leading Livestock
HAZARDS: Injuries to personnel and stock
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Only persons authorized in packing and unpacking livestock shall be allowed to perform these tasks. Keep animals' backs clean, saddle pad straight, saddle blanket smooth, and ensure saddle is properly fitted and tight. Tighten cinch before riding or loading packstock. Load side packs as equally as possible. Use breakaways to tie pack string together. Generally yield to loaded strings or larger strings when encountered on the trail. Hikers should yield to stock traffic, ask them to step to the downhill side of trail. Lead ropes should be around 10 feet in length, avoiding excessive lengths that may become entangled. Do not wrap coils of the lead rope around the hand or saddle horn.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Hauling Dirt and Gravel with Stock
HAZARDS: Injury to animals and/or personnel
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Use only gentle animals for this operation. If possible use three individuals for this operation (one to hold the lead rope, two to load and unload). Load and unload side boxes together. Do not overload animals. Try to load and unload in areas that will allow for personnel to step away from the animal if they become spooked. Inspect all dirt boxes for smooth operation before use.

HAZARDS: Injury to animals and personnel
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: For extended overnight trips, it is recommended to carry shoes, tools, easy-boots and nails. Only competent personnel shall be assigned to shoe a horse/mule. Maintain all tools to a sharp and properly functioning condition. Use caution when heating shoes and handling hot shoes. Wear PPE, leather chaps, etc. Tie stock to a secure location. Tie up in a smooth, shady location if possible.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Feeding Livestock
HAZARDS: Injury to animals and personnel
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Do not feed or water a sweaty animal until it has cooled off. Use caution when feeding or salting animals, animals may become aggressive and/or dangerous.

HAZARDS: Sudden load noises like gunshots, other users - llamas, backpackers, mountain bikers, and wildlife (bears, moose, insects etc.)
ABATEMENT ACTIONS: Always anticipate problems and be ready to deal with them. Desensitize livestock. Be prepared for animals spooking. Maintain control of your animal at all times.

TASKS/PROCEDURES: Local/Project-Specific Concerns

Work supervisors and crew members are responsible for developing and discussing field emergency evacuation procedures (EEP) and alternatives in the event a person(s) becomes seriously ill or injured at the worksite.

Be prepared to provide the following information:

A. Nature of the accident or injury (avoid using victim's name).
B. Type of assistance needed, if any (ground, air, or water evacuation).
C. Location of accident or injury, best access route into the worksite (road name/number), identifiable ground/air landmarks.
D. Radio frequencies.
E. Contact person.
F. Local hazards to ground vehicles or aviation.
G. Weather conditions (wind speed & direction, visibility, temperature).
H. Topography.
I. Number of individuals to be transported.
J. Estimated weight of individuals for air/water evacuation


The items listed above serve only as guidelines for the development of emergency evacuation procedures.

JHA and Emergency Evacuation Procedures Acknowledgment

We, the undersigned work leader and crew members, acknowledge participation in the development of this JHA (as applicable) and accompanying emergency evacuation procedures. We have thoroughly discussed and understand the provisions of each of these documents:

If you have suggested updates for this JHA, please email to

JHA – Pacific Crest Trail – Trail Condition Assessment Survey - Approved By Regional Forester Randy Moore on November 8, 2018

Please contact us at or (916) 285-1838 with any questions.